Shapes & Features
Anode - Metals or alloys are supplied as anode shapes. Plating anodes are in used in plating or electroplating processes. Sacrificial anodes are used to protect steel or other metal structures from corrosion. Sacrificial anodes corrode preferentially, creating a galvanic cell that protects the steel or iron alloy in the process.
Billet / Slab / Bloom - Billets, slabs, or blooms are massive, hot rolled, or forged blocks of metals or alloys. These forms can have semifinished square, rectangular slab, or round cross-sections. Producing billets or blooms from ingots by forging is called cogging. Hot-rolling ingots is a process called blooming. Billets are used as feedstock for rolling operations and in the machining of large components. Slabs are semi-finished steel blocks, usually with widths that are at least twice their thickness.
Bar Stock - Materials are supplied or available as bars, rod stock, or billets. Bars or rods may have a round, square, rectangular/flat, hexagonal, or oval-shaped cross-section.
Flats / Rectangular - Bar Materials are supplied or available as square bars, bar stock, or billets. Squares have a cross-section where two unequal sides proscribe a right angle between the surfaces.
Squares / Square Bar - Materials are supplied or available as square bars, bar stock, or billets. Squares have a cross-section where two equal sides proscribe a right angle between surfaces.
Rod / Round Bar - Stock Materials are supplied or available as rod stock with a round cross-section.
Rebar / Reinforcing Bar - Rebar or reinforcing bar consists of surface-textured rod stock and is used to strengthen and internally support concrete and masonry structures. Rebar is commonly made using carbon steel or stainless steel alloys. Stainless steel rebar is useful in applications where corrosion can attack the rebar. Examples of usage include marine piers, jetties, bridges, or road construction where de-icing salts are spread.
Hex Bar - Stock Materials are supplied or available as hexagonal stock with a hex-shaped cross-section.
Fabricated Parts / Shapes - Materials are fabricated as custom or application-specific shapes.
Foil - Foil is very thin sheet or strip stock with a thickness of less than 0.006″.
Plate - Materials are supplied or available as plates. Plates have a thickness of at least 0.250″, but may be larger than 1/4″.
Powder - Materials are available as powders, granules, or flakes.
Filler / Reinforcement - Powder or particulate materials are designed or suitable for filler or reinforcement applications.
Profile / Structural Shape - Profiles and structural shapes include shaped stock with uniform cross sections such tees, angles, channels, I-beams, rectangular tubes, and other cross sectional shapes. These shapes are manufactured through extrusion, continuous casting, roll forming, or other processes.
Angle - Material is supplied or available in a stock form with an “L” or angle-shaped cross section.
Beam / I-Beam - Material is supplied or available in a stock form with an I-beam or I-shaped cross-section.
Channel - This material is supplied or available in a stock form with a “C” or channel shaped cross-section.
Tee - This material is supplied or available in a stock form with a “T” or T-shaped cross-section.
Semi-finished Shape / Mill Stock - Semi-finished metal shapes or stock shapes are suitable for part fabrication by machining, assembly, or other processes. Stock shapes are also used as feedstock for casting, forging, spinning, and other forming processes. Semi-finished metal shapes and stock include forms such as bar stock, rods, plates, strips, wire, shaped wire, hexagonal shapes, billets, sheets, and foil.
Sheet - Materials can be supplied or available as sheets or foil. Sheets have a thickness between 0.006″ and 0.250″ and are 24″ (609.6 mm) or larger in width. Typically, sheets are formed to precise thicknesses and/or width requirements. Hardness and surface finish properties can be controlled by the rolling process, which usually consists of cross-rolling.
Shim / Shim Stock - Thin brass, steel, or metal stock is manufactured to precise thicknesses for shimming, chocking, or spacing applications.
Sphere / Ball (Bearing Ball) - Metals are available as spheres or precision-ground balls. Precision balls are used to fabricate bearing balls, ball valve balls, check valve balls, and measuring balls.
Strand / Multi-filament - Strand or multi-filament stock consists of multiple filaments or wires that are wound or braided together.
Strip - Materials are supplied or available as strips. Strips are usually 0.187″ (3/16″, 4.76 mm) or less in thickness and under 24″ (609.6 mm) in width. Typically, strips are formed to precise thicknesses and/or width requirements. Hardness and surface finish properties can be controlled by the rolling process, which usually consists of cross-rolling.
Wire / Shaped Wire - Materials are supplied or available as round wire, shaped wire, or flattened wire. Wire is less than 0.375″ in diameter.
Ingot - Materials are supplied or available as ingots or casting stock product forms.
Other - This refers to other unlisted, specialized or proprietary forms or stock types.
Coil Stock - Materials are supplied or available as coils, reels, or other wound stock forms.
Hollow Stock - Materials are supplied or available as tubes, pipes, or hollow stock with an open internal bore.
Cast (Continuous, Centrifugal, etc.) - Cast alloy stocks or shapes are produced in a casting process such as continuous casting or centrifugal casting.
Powdered Metal (Compacted) - Powered metal stock or shapes are fabricated by consolidating or compacting powdered or atomized versions or the metal or alloy. Powder processing eliminates the possibility of large inclusions and can produce a finer structure compared to conventional wrought processes.
Wrought - Wrought metals or alloys are worked mechanically to refine their structure, break up inclusion, close porosity, and improve homogeneity.Powder or particulate materials are designed or suitable for filler or reinforcement applications.
Amorphous / Glassy Alloy
Amorphous or glassy alloys do not have a crystal structure, which results in their superior or unique magnetic properties, corrosion resistance, and mechanical and electrical properties.
Anti-slip / Textured
Plates, bars, angles, or other stock metal shapes have a texture or non-slip surface such as an embossed diamond pattern or an anti-slip abrasive coating.
Boron Modified (B)
Steels are modified by adding boron (B).
Coated / Painted
Metal or alloy stock or shapes are coated with a protective or decorative layer of paint, resin, plating, thermal spray deposit, or other organic or inorganic material.
Cold Finished / Rolled / Drawn
Alloy stock or shapes are produced in a process that mechanically deforms or works the material at a temperature that is below the recrystallization point of the alloy. Rolling processes squeeze the metal between two steel rolls. Drawing processes pull the metal from a die opening or gap. The elevated temperature allows a greater degree of deformation as well as annealing during the process. Hot rolled metals tend to have more scale on their surface.
These alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require corrosion resistance.
Controlled / Low Expansion Alloy
Alloys are engineered to provide controlled or low thermal expansion characteristics. These low thermal expansion characteristics are useful in metal-to-glass or ceramic sealing applications.
Electric Arc Furnaced (E, VAR, etc.)
Electric arc furnaced materials are very clean and have less inclusions and lower variability. Aircraft, bearing, and premium steels are usually electric arc furnaced or E grade steels.
These alloy stocks or shapes are produced by using an extrusion process.
Metal stock or shapes are available as forged billets, blooms, slabs, or bar stock. The forging process presses, pounds, or squeezes metal stock under very high pressure. Material flow occurs during the forging process, closing any internal porosity and refining the microstructure.
Galvanized steel sheets and products are protected with an electrodeposited or dip zinc layer. The zinc and steel form a galvanic cell under wet or moist conditions. The zinc layer has a lower electrogalvanic potential compared to steel causing the zinc to be attacked and sacrificed while protecting the underlying steel.
Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require heat resistance.
Hot rolled alloy stock or shapes are produced in a process that mechanically deforms or works the material at an elevated temperature (e.g., steels in the “red” hot condition). This temperature is above the recrystallization point of the alloy. The elevated temperature allows a greater degree of deformation or a reduction of thickness. A post annealing process is not required after hot rolling. Hot rolled metals tend to have more surface scale and require pickling and oiling.
Leaded / Free Machining
Alloys contain additions of lead, selenium, or other free-machining additives that help break up chips during the machining process.
Shock / Impact Resistant
Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require shock or impact resistance.
Soft Magnetic Alloy
Soft magnetic alloys are easily magnetized and demagnetized. These alloys are used in motor, transformer, electromagnets, magnetic bearing, solenoid, GFCI, relays, generators, tape heads, and shielding applications in sheet, lamination, and core configurations. Depending on the specific application, alloys are selected based on their permeability, resistivity, core loss, and flux density or saturation characteristics
Alloys are designed or suitable for service applications that require wear or erosion resistance.